Sperm Retrieval Process for Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART)

(a) Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE)

This technique is used to diagnose the cause of azoospermia (no sperm). A small portion of the tissue is removed from the testicles, and sperm cells are extracted for further procedure.

(b) Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration (TFNA):

It is sometimes used to collect sperm from the testicles.

(c) Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA)

It is performed under general anaesthesia. The urologist attaches a needle to a syringe into the epididymis. Then they gently withdraw fluid. It is not always possible to get sperm. So, they may tell you about surgery.

(d) Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA)

In this process, sperm are recovered from the epididymal tubes using a surgical microscope. It yields a high quantity of motile sperm, which can be frozen and thawed later for IVF treatments.

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