Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is a medical condition characterized by a lack of sperm in the semen due to a sperm production problem.
Hormone therapy increases testosterone levels to stimulate sperm production, with HCG and clomiphene citrate being the most commonly used hormones.
A surgical procedure to examine testicular tissue for sperm, which can be used for fertility treatments such as IVF.
ICSI is a fertility treatment that uses a single sperm injected directly into an egg to achieve pregnancy.
Donor sperm can be used for fertility treatments such as IVF if sperm cannot be found or extracted from the man's testes.
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