Laparoscopic surgery is an invasive surgical method that uses a small cut in the abdominal and pelvic areas. It uses a thin laparoscope tube with a camera attached to the end.

Through two to four small incisions of half an inch or fewer, surgeons insert it into the body, look at a video monitor, and see what’s happening inside without opening it up. It helps in faster recovery and better patient outcomes.

When is laparoscopic surgery used?

Laparoscopy lets the doctor see anomalies that might interfere with a woman’s ability to conceive a pregnancy. The most common problems for which it is used are as follows: –

When is laparoscopic surgery used?
  • Diagnosing for endometriosis– a situation in which tissues that lines the uterus grows outside the uterus.
  • Diagnose Pelvic inflammatory disease- When an infection occurs in the female reproductive organs like the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries.
  • Remove Ectopic pregnancy– a pregnancy that grows outside the uterus.
  • Analyzing causes of infertility
  • Remove fibroids- growths that form inside or outside the uterus.
  • Ovarian cyst surgery- fluid-filled sacs that form inside or on the surface of an ovary.

What happens during the laparoscopic surgery procedure?

Laparoscopic surgery is mainly done by giving general anesthesia. It is a medicine that is used to make you unconscious while operating. So that you won’t feel any pain during the surgery, it is given through an intravenous line or by inhaling gases from a mask.

And if general anesthesia is not given, medicine is injected into your abdomen to numb the area so that you won’t feel any pain. And once you are unconscious or your abdomen is numb. Then: –

  • A surgeon will make a small incision below your belly button or near that of almost 1 to 1.5cm.
  • Then they insert a thin tube with a camera and light attached to it and a carbon dioxide gas to inflate the tummy; So that they can see all organs more clearly inside the abdomen and make it easier for them to see inside the body
  • Then, the surgeon will move the laparoscope around the area and view the images of the abdomen and pelvic organs on a computer screen.
  • After the procedure, the surgeon will remove the surgical tools and most of the gas and will close the small incisions
  • The patient will then move to the recovery room.

The patient may feel sleepy or nauseous for a few hours.

How should one prepare for laparoscopy surgery?

As most laparoscopic surgeries are done by giving general anesthesia, the patient should avoid eating and drinking for about six or more hours before the surgery. This will prevent nausea from the anesthesia.

And should also arrange for someone to drive you home after the procedure. One can probably go home the same day but still be dizzy and disoriented from the anesthesia. One should also ask the doctor if they need to follow specific medication instructions.

What are the advantages of laparoscopic surgery?

Laparoscopy is an excellent advantage for diagnosing infertility problems. Because if the woman has mild endometriosis, ultrasound cannot help identifying it. Only laparoscopy can assist in this case.

Laparoscopic surgery is less invasive compared to traditional surgery. As in traditional surgery, several long centimeter incisions are made in the abdomen. This result in a prolonged recovery period compared to laparoscopic surgery. And so, the patient has to spend two to three nights in the hospital.

Pelvic adhesions are another problem that can be identified through this surgery. This is also known as scar tissue and cannot be seen through ultrasound, x-rays, or CT scans. These adhesions may interfere with the ability to conceive, making it more difficult for the egg to get into the fallopian tube during ovulation.

What is the risk of complications of laparoscopic surgery?

Laparoscopic surgery is almost risk-free but can cause general complications like mild abdominal pain or discomfort afterward and an allergic reaction to anesthesia.

The severe problem is uncommon but can include internal adhesions from scar tissue or excessive bleeding. The risk of damage to internal organs is also possible with either type of surgery like blood vessel injury, bowel injury, nerve injury, etc.

Which infertile patient should opt for a Laparoscopy?

  • Women who have problems conceiving and completing their essential infertility evaluation, including ovulation assessment, ovarian reserve, ultrasound, etc., and men who have done their semen analysis should opt for laparoscopic surgery.
  • This surgery is more beneficial for women with a history of a severe pelvic infection or a ruptured appendix because there is an excellent chance that she may be having pelvic adhesions.
  • But couples going for fertility treatments like IVF or Intrauterine insemination can avoid laparoscopic surgery because conception is possible without this surgery.

IVF or laparoscopy, which is better?

IVF is less invasive and has a high success rate compared to laparoscopy. Even if a woman has severe adhesions, she can still conceive with IVF. On the other hand, laparoscopy is usually used to treat pelvic adhesions or scar tissues and endometriosis, which can also be treated effectively by IVF.


Laparoscopic surgery is less invasive and can be recovered from the treatment quickly. However, it’s better to consult a doctor before undergoing any treatment procedure because they guide the best options after understanding the problem correctly.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

After laparoscopy, it is normal to experience vaginal bleeding for up to one month. Many women do not have their next menstrual cycle for 4 to 6 weeks after surgery. And once it returns, women may experience heavy bleeding and more discomfort than usual.

Laparoscopy is performed before IVF to detect unrecognized pelvic adhesions and to know the cause of recurrent IVF failures. This helps in increasing the chance of pregnancy.

IMSI is an additional step in the ICSI process. It is a test performed on a semen sample and is a non-invasive treatment. The risk associated with IMSI is the same as ICSI. However, it does not carry any additional known risks for the person undergoing fertility treatment

Yes, if fallopian tubes are blocked by a small number of adhesions or scar tissue, then laparoscopic surgery is advised by the doctor to remove the blockage, but in case the fallopian tubes are blocked by large amounts of scar tissue or adhesions, then this treatment may not be possible to remove the blockage.

Laparoscopic surgery may not be recommended if a prior surgery in the area has been performed because the scars and adhesions may restrict the view. Comprehensive infection or bleeding is a crisis that requires an instantaneous switch to open surgery.

There are many uses of laparoscopic surgery, such as diagnosing and treating chronic pelvic pain, endometriosis, fibroid tumors, infertility, and ovarian cysts.

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