Endometriosis Causes, Complications, and Treatment
  • Endometriosis is a Disorder. It occurs when a tissue similar to the tissue that lines inside a female uterus called endometrium grows outside the uterine cavity.
  • It includes ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the tissue lining your pelvis. It is very rare for endometrial-like tissue to spread beyond the area of the pelvic region. But it is not impossible.
  • The hormonal during the menstrual cycle affects the misplaced endometrial tissue resulting in an inflamed and painful area. Thus, tissue develops, thickens, and breaks down.
  • Over time, the broken tissues stuck in the area are trapped in the pelvic region, leading to irritation, scar formation, fertility issue, and severe pain during menstruation and adhesions. However, effective treatment is available.

Related Post: – Infertility Treatments for Men and Women

Causes of Endometriosis

The exact cause of endometriosis is not known. However, there are some possible explanations which include the following: –

Retrograde Menstruation

Retrograde menstruation occurs when menstrual blood containing endometrial cells flows back into the pelvic cavity through the fallopian tube rather than leaving the body via the vagina. These endometrial cells stick to pelvic walls and surfaces of pelvic organs, where they grow and continue to thicken and bleed throughout each menstrual cycle.

Peritoneal cells

Induction theory proses the certain hormone or immune factors that promote the transformation of the peritoneal cell. The cell lines the abdomen’s inner side, leading to endometrial-like cells.

Embryonic Cell Transformation

Hormones like estrogen may inadvertently transform undifferentiated embryonic cells into endometrial cells during puberty. As per the theory, residual embryonic cells in the developing female reproductive tract called Mullerian ducts may persist after birth and be induced into endometriosis under the influence of estrogen.

  • Surgical Scar Implantation: –After a surgery, such as a c-section or a hysterectomy, endometrial cells may connect to a surgical incision.
  • Endometrial Cell Transport: – The blood vessels or tissue fluid (lymphatic) system may transport endometrial cells to other body parts.
  • Immune System Disorder: – Certain immunologic defects or dysfunctions may appear in the body, unable to recognize and destroy endometrial-like tissue growing outside the uterus.

Symptoms of Endometriosis

The common symptoms of endometriosis are as follows: –

  • Painful Periods – Severe pelvic pain and menstrual cramps may occur before the menstrual period and may appear for several days. One may not feel relieved even with the use of common painkillers.
  • Pain During Intercourse- In endometriosis, pain during and after intercourse is common
  • Excessive Bleeding– One may experience heavy menstrual periods or bleeding between periods. Also, periods last for more than seven days.
  • Long-term lower back and pelvic pain
  • Periods with painful bowel movements. Other problems like constipation, nausea, and diarrhea.
  • Trouble Getting Pregnant

You cannot examine your condition on the basis severity of pain because one can have mild endometriosis with severe pain.

Or advanced endometriosis with little or no discomfort. It is also sometimes mistaken for other conditions that cause pelvic pain, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or ovarian cysts. It can also be confused with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), which causes diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal cramping.

Diagnosis for Endometriosis

Based on the symptoms, the doctor can suspect this problem. They can do the following tests to confirm it: –

  • Pelvic Exam: – The doctor uses a speculum and light to see the inside of the vagina and cervix. They will manually feel your cysts or scars behind the uterus.
  • Ultrasound: – The doctor may perform a transvaginal or abdominal ultrasound to get pictures of the reproductive organ. A transvaginal ultrasound is conducted by inserting a probe into the vaginal canal. They can even do a CT scan or an MRI to get a detailed picture of your organs.
  • Laparoscopy: -The doctor makes a small cut in your belly and inserts a thin tube with a camera on the end called a laparoscope. And once the tissue has been identified, it may be removed during the same process.
  • Biopsy: –Sometimes doctor takes a sample of tissue, often during a laparoscopy, and a specialist looks at it under a microscope to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for Endometriosis

Surgical and medical options are available to decrease the symptoms and deal with potential complications. Since every patient is different and has different conditions and symptoms, they need to talk to the doctor to get the best treatment. The treatment options available are as follows: –

  • Pain Medicine: – Pain medicine is given to deal with immediate symptoms. But they may not be useful every time.
  • Hormone Therapy:- Hormone therapy helps the body regulate its monthly hormonal changes that promote tissue growth with endometriosis. It lowers the amount of estrogen and stops your period. It helps in lesions bleed, so one doesn’t have inflammation, pain, or scarring, and stops endometriosis progression.
  • Hormonal Contraceptives:-Birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings can decrease or even eliminate the pain in less serious conditions. An injection called depo-prefer can also be effective in stopping menstruation and endometrial implant growth and alleviating pain and other symptoms.
  • Surgery: – Surgery is also an option available to remove the endometrial growth. Laparoscopic surgery is used to visualize and diagnose and remove endometrial tissues.

Risk Factors of Endometriosis

Understanding the risk factors can help determine whether you are more likely to develop this condition and when you should visit your doctor.

  • Age: – Women of all ages are at risk of it. However, it mostly occurs in women in their 30’s and 40s, but symptoms can begin at puberty.
  • Family History:- If anyone in your family has endometriosis, you may have a higher risk of developing this disease.
  • Pregnancy: – Women who have never been pregnant are at higher risk of it. Pregnancy and breastfeeding lead to decreased risk of endometriosis. Because in pregnancy and breastfeeding, menstrual periods are absent, which reduces the level of estrogen and other hormone related to endometriosis symptoms.
  • Issues Related to Menstruation: – Talk to a doctor if you have shorter cycles, heavier and longer periods, or start at a young age because these factors may place you at a higher risk of developing endometriosis.

However, it can still occur in women who have children. This reinforces the understanding that hormones affect the development and progress of the condition.


Endometriosis can affect a woman’s life very badly. A severe cramp, bleeding, and other symptoms during a period are not always normal. You should take it seriously. It would help if you spoke to your doctor because it can result from other conditions, such as endometriosis.

It can even affect the couple’s sexual life. So, it is very important to be open and honest about your pain and symptoms. So that doctor can give the right treatment.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

It is most common in women in their 30’s or 40’s. And one out of ten women affected with endometriosis is at their reproductive age.

No, it’s not that. Surgery is considered the second option for treating endometriosis. It is done only for whom medical treatment is not effective or in special cases like in some cases it may affect the intestine or to improve fertility, etc.

Patients with infertility usually accompanies it because the related scar tissue interferes with the release of eggs or blocks the fallopian tube and prevents the egg from reaching the uterus and joining with a sperm. It also causes inflammation, leading to eggs getting older faster in women with endometriosis.

No, it does not cause cancer. Some kinds of cancer, such as ovarian cancer, are slightly more frequent in endometriosis patients.

Yes, in most cases, you can get pregnant. Talk to your doctor and seek their help.